The six kinds of courts-martial (and their description) in Starfleet are--
(1) Captain's Mast--
When an enlisted crew or officer breaks a rule, or is negligent or unmilitary in conduct, he/she may be placed on report by a superior officer. This means that the person placed on report must appear before the captain at a specified time for disciplinary actions. That is, the person must appear at Captain's Mast. The commanding officer of a starship is authorized to assign certain punishments for minor offences. These punishments include--
(A) witholding of privileges for up to 2 weeks;
(B) restriction to certain specified limits for up to 2 weeks;
(C) extra duties for up to 2 weeks;
(D) reduction to next inferior grade rank.
(2) Summary Courts-Martial--
For enlisted personnel whose offenses warrant more severe treatment, a Summary Courts-Martial may be composed of any officer above Lieutenant (JG) -- preferably the officer heading the department or division of the accused. This officer is appointed to the task by the captain. The punishments are more severe than a Captain's Mast, and must be reviewed by the captain before taking effect. These punishments may include--
(A) restricted to certain specified limits for up to 2 months;
(B) reduction to an inferior grade or rank;
(C) forfeiture of 10,000 points (or whatever point system is used for promotions).
(3) Special Courts-Martial--
A captain may convene a Special Court-Martial. It is composed of three officers if the accused is an officer, or two officers and one enlisted man if the accused is an enlisted man. If the accused is an officer, one of the designated judges must be of the same rank, and one must be higher. A Special Courts-Martial has the authority to try any member of Starfleet for any offense. Prosecution and defense councils
will be appointed by the captain, in concert with the Judge Advocate General's office. Punishment given by a Special Courts-Martial can be as light as a Captain's Mast, or as severe as--
(A) restriction to certain specified limits for up to 6 months;
(B) bad conduct discharge;
(C) forfeiture of 50,000 points (or whatever point system is used for promotions.)
(4) General Courts-Martial--
A General Court-Martial consists of the ship's Legal Officer (appointed by the Judge Advocate General's office) and between five and ten other members. If the accused is an officer, all of the designated judges must be officers, one must be of the same rank, and one must be of superior rank. A General Courts-Martial has the authority to try any member of Starfleet, for any offense punishable under the Starfleet Code of Military
Justice, which includes Mutiny. Severity of punishment includes--
(A) dishonourable discharge;
(B) a fine of up to $10,000 for a copyright violation (civilians and Starfleet personnel.);
(C) being blacklisted (for a mutiny or passing on trade secrets of the organization.)
(5) Field Courts-Martial--
Under certain conditions and circumstances (such as a Landing Party or after evacuation), the captain or ranking Line Officer may need to hold a courts-martial while out of the ship. Regulations require that the court be composed of the three highest ranking personnel present, plus one person chosen by the accused (usually a JAG officer.)
(6) Article 32 Hearing--
If any officers goes against the wishes or the rules and regulations of Starfleet, a letter of reprimand is enclosed in the officer's or enlisted personnel's file. This letter will be reviewed should the person be elegible for a promotion. Basically, it's "Look Twice Before Making a
Decision." The severity of the reprimand will make it virtually impossible for rank advancement, unless overturned by the most senior officer in Startfleet.
817. ARTICLE 17. JURISDICTION OF COURTS-MARTIAL IN GENERAL
(a) Each armed force has court-martial jurisdiction over all persons subject to this chapter. The exercise of jurisdiction by one armed force over personnel of another armed force shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the President.
(b) In all cases, departmental review after that by the officer with authority to convene a general court-martial for the command which held the trial, where that review is required under this chapter, shall be carried out by the department that includes the armed force of which the accused is a member.
818. ARTICLE 18. JURISDICTION OF GENERAL COURTS-MARTIAL
Subject to section 817 of this title (article 17), general courts-martial have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this chapter for any offense made punishable by this chapter and may, under such limitations as the President may prescribe, adjudge any punishment not forbidden by this chapter, including the penalty of death when specifically authorized by this chapter. General courts-martial also have jurisdiction to try any person who by the law of war is subject to trial by a military tribunal and may adjudge any punishment permitted by the law of war. However, a general court-martial of the kind specified in section 816(1)(B) of this title (article 16(1)(B)) shall not have jurisdiction to try any person for any offense for which the death penalty may be adjudged unless the case has been previously referred to trial as noncapital case.
819 ARTICLE 19. JURISDICTION OF SPECIAL COURTS-MARTIAL
Subject to section 817 of this title (article 17), special courts-martial have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this chapter for any noncapital offense made punishable by this chapter and, under such regulations as the President may prescribe, for capital offenses. Special courts-martial may, under such limitations as the President may prescribe, adjudge any punishment not forbidden by this chapter except death, dishonorable discharge, dismissal, confinement for more than six months, hard labor without confinement for more than three months, forfeiture of pay exceeding two-thirds pay per month, or forfeiture of pay for more than six months. A bad-conduct discharge may not be adjudged unless a complete record of the proceedings and testimony has been made, counsel having the qualifications prescribed under section 827(b) of this title (article 27(b)) was detailed to represent the accused, and a military judge was detailed to the trial, except in any case in which a military judge could not be detailed to the trial, the convening authority shall make a detailed written statement, to be appended to the record, stating the reason or reasons a military judge could not be detailed.
820 ARTICLE 20. JURISDICTION OF SUMMARY COURTS-MARTIAL
Subject to section 817 of this title (article 17), summary courts-martial have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this chapter, except officers, cadets, aviation cadets, and midshipman, for any noncapital offense made punishable by this chapter. No person with respect to whom summary courts- martial have jurisdiction may be brought to trial before a summary court- martial if he objects thereto. If objection to trial by summary court- martial is made by an accused, trial may be ordered by special or general court-martial as may be appropriate. Summary courts-martial may, under such limitations as the President may prescribe, adjudge any punishment not forbidden by this chapter except death, dismissal, dishonorable or bad- conduct discharge, confinement for more than one month, hard labor without confinement for more than 45 days, restrictions to specified limits for more than two months, or forfeiture of more than two-thirds of one month's pay.
821. ARTICLE 21. JURISDICTION OF COURTS-MARTIAL NOT EXCLUSIVE
The provisions of this chapter conferring jurisdiction upon courts- martial do not deprive military commissions, provost courts, or other military tribunals of concurrent jurisdiction with respect to offenders or offenses that by statute or by the law of war may be tried by military commissions, provost courts, or other military tribunals.